TREATMENT AND CONDITIONING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE
Facilities for treatment and conditioning of RAW in the locality of Jaslovské Bohunice
The primary facility for treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste (RAW) from decommissioning of the nuclear power plants A1 and V1 in the locality of Jaslovské Bohunice is the nuclear installation Technologies for Treatment and Conditioning of Radioactive Waste (TTC RAW). The installation TTC RAW includes mainly the Bohunice Radioactive Waste Treatment Centre, in which technologies like high-pressure compaction, incineration line, facilities for thickening of liquid RAW and cementation line are used. Bituminization lines, purification station of radioactive wastewater, processing centre for used air-technical filters, fragmentation line, high-capacity decontamination line and certified storages for radioactive waste are also part of TTC RAW.
The structure of this nuclear installation will also include a facility for melting of metallic RAW in the future. It is intended for decontamination of metals with certain type of contamination, where radionuclides become concentrated in the upper part of the melting, so-called cinder. As a result, activity in other parts of the melting decreases. The investment activities implemented within the decommissioning projects of the nuclear power plant V1 are financed 19 % from the BIDSF and 81 % from the resources of the National Nuclear Fund and JAVYS, a. s. The facility and related technology have already been installed in the premises of the nuclear power plant A1. The facility will be commissioned in the near future.
The nuclear power plant A1 has its specific features such as specialized centres and facilities for treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste. Another specific feature is handling of contaminated soils and concrete. They have been contaminated due to leaking facilities as well as negligent approach to safety in the past. The contaminated soils and concrete are separated in a specialized facility and according to the detected level of contamination are either released into the environment or disposed in the National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce.
Another specific feature is treatment of so-called chrompik (used as a cooling medium for spent nuclear fuel), which is significantly contaminated with radionuclides from the fuel. Chrompik is solidified in the process of vitrification, which means grouting of RAW into glass matrix. So-called casings of the long-term storage, which were used for storage of spent nuclear fuel, are processed through decontamination and fragmentation in specialized facilities. Specialized equipment is used for cementation of historical sludges from both indoor and outdoor facilities of the nuclear power plant A1.
Low-activity waste treated and conditioned through the above-mentioned technologies is then inserted into a fiber-reinforced concrete container and grouted with the cement paste. Thereafter they are transported to the National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce. The higher activity waste, which cannot be disposed in this repository, is stored in a special storage facility, so-called Integral Storage Facility, where radioactivity either decreases naturally by radioactive decay and the waste is disposed in the existing repository or the waste is disposed in the deep geological repository.
Facilities for treatment and conditioning of RAW in the locality of Mochovce
The installation called the Final Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste (FT LRAW) is situated in the locality of Mochovce. The facility primarily serves to treat and condition the liquid radioactive waste from the operation of the nuclear power plant in Mochovce. It includes bituminization lines, line for thickening of radioactive concentrates and cementation line – used for grouting of fiber-reinforced concrete containers with cement paste. The capacity of this installation highly exceeds the needs for treatment and conditioning of operational radioactive waste in the locality of Mochovce. Therefore, in order to utilize capacities effectively, the fiber-reinforced concrete containers filled with solid and solidified waste from decommissioning of the nuclear power plants A1 and V1 are grouted in this installation.