Resources of the National Nuclear Fund
Resources of the National Nuclear Fund consist primarily of the contributions of the licence holders for the operation of reactor and non-reactor nuclear facilities as well as the levy collected by the operator of the transmission system and the operators of distribution systems intended for the repayment of the historical debt. Another important resource is interests on deposits in the National Nuclear Fund’s accounts. All these resources serve specific purposes, which means that they can be used solely to secure the activities for which they have been accumulated by law.
Contributors are the operators of nuclear installations intended for electricity generation in the Slovak Republic. In Slovakia, there are two such nuclear facilities in operation, namely the nuclear power plant V2 in Jaslovské Bohunice and the nuclear power plant in Mochovce – 1. and 2. unit. These power plants annually provide the National Nuclear Fund financial resources through so-called compulsory contributions which are accumulated in its dedicated sub-accounts. The amount of annual contributions is periodically reviewed (every six years) in order to evaluate current knowledge of the nuclear power plants’ state, development in the decommissioning process as well as other aspects having a significant direct impact on the final decommissioning costs.
The operators of nuclear installations other than nuclear installations intended for electricity generation (so-called non-reactor nuclear facilities) also pay contributions to the National Nuclear Fund. This group of nuclear facilities includes technology lines and facilities intended for treatment, conditioning and storage of radioactive waste, storage of spent nuclear fuel and disposal of radioactive waste.
Another resource of the National Nuclear Fund is the levy collected by the operator of transmission system and the operators of distribution systems. The levy is included in the price of electricity delivered to its end users. The operators of transmission and regional distribution systems pay contributions to the account of the Ministry of Economy of the SR. Afterwards, the Ministry transfers the resources to the National Nuclear Fund. These financial resources are intended to cover the so-called historical debt. The debt arose due to missing payments from operating nuclear power plants to the Nuclear Fund until the end of 1994 (when the State Fund for Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Installations and Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste was established). This levy is used for activities connected with the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant A1 and partially for the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant V1 in Jaslovské Bohunice.
Interests on term deposits in the State Treasury are also a significant income for the National Nuclear Fund. Deposits from particular sub-accounts and analytical accounts of the National Nuclear Fund are appreciated and relevant revenues are credited to these accounts, too.
The National Nuclear Fund secures financial resources from the state budget for management of radioactive and nuclear materials whose originator is unknown. The National Nuclear Fund is provided these resources through the subsidies from the Ministry of Economy of the SR. The resources spent on these activities are part of the state budget.
The National Nuclear Fund manages financial resources from organizations using high-activity sealed radiation sources (e.g. in health services, industry, etc.). These financial resources are intended for management with such high-activity sealed radiation sources in order to secure their safe disposal.
Penalties imposed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the SR for violation of the Atomic Act are also income of the National Nuclear Fund. Sanctions for violation of financial discipline in terms of using public sources are income of the Nuclear Fund too.
Besides the above-mentioned resources, the state as well as Slovak and foreign organizations may also contribute to the National Nuclear Fund. However, these resources must be spent solely for activities related to the back-end of peaceful use of nuclear energy.
Balance of resources of the Nuclear Fund
Revenues of the National Nuclear Fund
Financial resources for the back-end of nuclear power engineering have been accumulated since the State Fund for Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Installations and Management of Spent Fuel and Radioactive waste in the Slovak Republic (ŠFL JZ) was established in 1995. Most revenues consisted of contributions from the operators of nuclear installations, subsidies from the state budget and interests on deposits in the accounts. The National Nuclear Fund for Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations and Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste established by the Act No. 238/2006 Coll. became the successor of ŠFL JZ. Since 2011, the levy, which is incorporated into the price for end users of electricity, has also become an important income to the National Nuclear Fund. It serves to cover the costs connected with the so-called historical debt. Since 2019, after the enactment of the new Act on the National Nuclear Fund, the licence holder for the operation of non-reactor nuclear facilities has been contributing to the Nuclear Fund to save for their future decommissioning.
Expenditures of the National Nuclear Fund
Financial resources of the National Nuclear Fund may be used solely by an authorized applicant, who is a licence holder for the operation of a nuclear installation issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the SR or the Public Health Authority of the SR (in case of management of high-activity sealed radiation sources). The use of the financial resources must be implemented pursuant to Act 308/2018 Coll. on the National Nuclear Fund and in accordance with the Ministry of Economy of the SR Resolution No. 31/2019 Coll. The Slovak Republic has to deal with the burden, which is the experimental nuclear power plant A1 in Jaslovské Bohunice shut down after two operational accidents. The largest part of financial resources of the National Nuclear Fund is spent for activities which ensure safe decommissioning of the nuclear power plant A1. The remaining financial resources are used for co-financing of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant V1 in Jaslovské Bohunice, the storage of spent nuclear fuel from the nuclear power plant V1 in the Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility and part of it is used for the management of nuclear materials and radioactive materials of unknown origin.